There is only one acceptable methodology for potty training a dog of any age: positive reinforcement. Traditional advice suggested swatting a dog or rubbing his face in his waste for mistakes in the house, but those techniques do nothing to make the potty training process more understandable for your dog and can actually damage your relationship with him. Keep in mind, dogs don’t view their waste the way we do – to them, pee and poo is pretty interesting! Punishing your dog for going in the house won’t help him understand what he should do instead and might make him afraid to go near you at all, inside or out. Successful potty training requires patience, kindness and remembering that your new puppy is just learning the rules.
Yes, shock collars do hurt dogs - unlike training collars. A dog may not yelp when they are hurt, but they can still be in pain. Similarly, there may be no signs on their skin that they have been harmed by the electric shock. This is because the damage caused is actually deep in the tissue, and it is left to grow worse the more the shock collar is used.  dog training tips

Dogs (and wolves) mark their territories with urine and their stools.[37] The anal gland of canines give a particular signature to fecal deposits and identifies the marker as well as the place where the dung is left. Dogs are very particular about these landmarks, and engage in what is to humans a meaningless and complex ritual before defecating. Most dogs start with a careful bout of sniffing of a location, perhaps to erect an exact line or boundary between their territory and another dog's territory. This behavior may also involve a small degree of elevation, such as a rock or fallen branch, to aid scent dispersal. Scratching the ground after defecating is a visual sign pointing to the scent marking. The freshness of the scent gives visitors some idea of the current status of a piece of territory and if it is used frequently. Regions under dispute, or used by different animals at different times, may lead to marking battles with every scent marked-over by a new competitor.[6]:252–4
Sometimes, despite all of your hard work, your puppy might slip up and eliminate in the house. If you catch him in the act, make an abrupt noise to stop him then quickly bring him outside and give him a reward for finishing in the right spot (it’s okay if you take him out and he doesn’t go). Don’t punish your dog for the accident; simply clean it up with an appropriate odor eliminator and vow to watch him more diligently in the future.
Unfortunately, some breeds are labeled "dangerous" and banned in certain areas. However, it's not usually about the breed so much as it's about history. A dog's environment has a major impact on behavior. Also, regardless of breed, a dog may inherit some aggressive traits. Fortunately, most experts agree that breed-specific legislation is not the answer.
Stop them from barking. Excessive barking can be frustrating, especially if the neighbours are threatening to put in a noise complaint. Using a training collar can help to get rid of this habit, as it will activate as soon as barking is detected. For the citronella spray, the release will surprise them into silence, and the release of the odour will be associated with barking. For sound and vibration, it is much the same in that it startles your dog, and the more they bark the long the sound and vibration go on for. 
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In 2004, a study reviewed 5 other studies of feral dogs published between 1975 and 1995 and concluded that their pack structure is very loose and rarely involves any cooperative behavior, either in raising young or in obtaining food.[82] Feral dogs are primarily scavengers, with studies showing that unlike their wild cousins, they are poor ungulate hunters, having little effect on wildlife populations where they are sympatric.[83]:267 However, several garbage dumps located within the feral dog's home range are important for their survival.[84] Even well-fed domestic dogs are prone to scavenge; gastro-intestinal veterinary visits increase during warmer weather as dogs are prone to eat decaying material.[85] Some dogs consume feces, which may contain nutrition.[86][87] On occasion well-fed dogs have been known to scavenge their owners' corpses.[88]

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This collar from Educator is great for dog owners who want an alternative to a traditional shock collar. Rather than using a “sharp” static shock, it relies on “blunt” stimulation technology that has an effect that feels more like a strong tap. Educator describes this as less stressful for dogs, but just as effective for motivating them to comply. It also includes a Pavlovian Tone feature (named for the famed conditioning study), where dogs learn to respond to the sound before the stimulation rather than the stimulation itself. more on this
Although you might think he needs some sleep, a dog yawn doesn't usually mean he's tired. He may be interested in napping, but he could also be showing a sign of fear or stress. If your dog appears to yawn at an increased rate around a new person, don't rush the introduction. He's either picking up vibes he doesn't feel comfortable with, or is fearful for a less-obvious reason. No matter what the case, a forced introduction isn't a good idea. dog training classes
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