Dogs differ from wolves and most other large canid species as they generally do not regurgitate food for their young, nor the young of other dogs in the same territory.[78] However, this difference was not observed in all domestic dogs. Regurgitating of food by the females for the young, as well as care for the young by the males, has been observed in domestic dogs, dingos and in feral or semi-feral dogs. In one study of a group of free-ranging dogs, for the first 2 weeks immediately after parturition the lactating females were observed to be more aggressive to protect the pups. The male parents were in contact with the litters as ‘guard’ dogs for the first 6–8 weeks of the litters’ life. In absence of the mothers, they were observed to prevent the approach of strangers by vocalizations or even by physical attacks. Moreover, one male fed the litter by regurgitation showing the existence of paternal care in some free-roaming dogs.[79]
If you watch two dogs playing together, you will frequently see them bow. Trainers refer to this behavior as a play bow, and it is a dog's way of asking another dog to come and play. You can easily use your dog's natural playfulness to train it to take a bow. And it's a great way to end a demonstration of all the cool new dog tricks your dog has learned!
Taking the learning from Stages 1 and 2, we now test the dog within a public environment with real life distractions. This period can be the most challenging for the dog. Using a range of public locations we train the dog to utilise learned behaviours.During Stage 3 we expect the dog to work on verbal commands only, asking for a higher level of obedience. The training is still fun. At this stage, we have usually exchanged the food reward for a toy.
Studies using an operant framework have indicated that humans can influence the behavior of dogs through food, petting and voice. Food and 20–30 seconds of petting maintained operant responding in dogs.[89] Some dogs will show a preference for petting once food is readily available, and dogs will remain in proximity to a person providing petting and show no satiation to that stimulus.[90] Petting alone was sufficient to maintain the operant response of military dogs to voice commands, and responses to basic obedience commands in all dogs increased when only vocal praise was provided for correct responses.[91]
Emotional contagion is linked to facial mimicry in humans and primates. Facial mimicry is an automatic response that occurs in less than 1 second in which one person involuntary mimics another person's facial expressions, forming empathy. It has also been found in dogs at play, and play sessions lasted longer when there were facial mimicry signals from one dog to another.[12] Puppy potty Training
The process is the exactly same for older dogs as it is for puppies; prevent accidents from happening by using baby gates and a crate if possible, create a predictable schedule, learn to recognize your dog’s potty signals, accompany your dog outside and immediately reward for all outdoor elimination, properly clean any accidents and supervise your dog until you’re sure that he understands the rules.
Reasons for aggression are basically the same as the reasons a dog will bite or snap, but overall canine aggression is a much more serious problem. If your dog has aggressive tendencies, consult your vet first as it may stem from a health problem. Then, seek the help of an experienced dog trainer or behaviorist. Serious measures should be taken to keep others safe from aggressive dogs. 

Dog aggression is exhibited by growling, snarling, showing teeth, lunging, and biting. It is important to know that any dog has the potential to show aggression, regardless of breed or history. However, dogs with violent or abusive histories and those bred from dogs with aggressive tendencies are much more likely to exhibit aggressive behavior towards people or other dogs. dog training collar

Just like people, every dog is different. The breed and the way you raise them are certainly factors, but sometimes their individual personality is the biggest determiner when it comes to the ease of training. You may have been able train one dog without any aides at all but still find yourself scratching your head on getting your next dog to behave. For those more stubborn dogs (or if you simply can’t devote the same amount of time to your new dog), they have dog training collars that can help you. Puppy potty Training
Training clubs that run the Kennel Club Good Citizen Dog Scheme - the largest dog training programme in the UK are a sensible place to begin. Here you will learn about every aspect of dog ownership from the Puppy Foundation Courses through to Bronze, Silver and Gold award levels. Go to GCDS Training Clubs in your County to find one near to you or email the GCDS Team ([email protected]) or call 0207 518 1011. go here for more
3)      Find their Passion. What does your dog prize most?  Food? If so, what kind of food?  A toy—what toy?  A bone… well, you get the picture. Some dogs (like the above mentioned puppy-mill rescue) will do back flips for praise said in just the right tone.  Discover what your dog loves and give it to him after each successful potty run. For the first month, withhold that “thing” until after pottying.  Play or let him chew on it for 10 minutes, then set it aside for the next potty period.
Be persistent! Make sure the puppy doesn't get the opportunity to pee and poop by using a leash indoors or confining him to a crate when you're out. Depending on the puppies age, pop him outside every 20 - 30 minutes, so there's a greater chance of him toileting outside (by accident at first.) In addition, get rid of any scent markers he's left by peeing or pooping indoors, as these will draw him back to the same spot. This means cleaning the area daily, for 2- 3 weeks after he last pooped there to fully get rid of any lingering odor that the dog can detect.
At Protection Dogs Worldwide, we offer residential obedience training for your canine companion. We understand that obedience training is time consuming, difficult and often a frustrating process for many owners. Protection Dogs Worldwide is able to remove much of the stress of training and use our knowledge and experience to train your dog to a high level of obedience. Our aim is turn your dog into a perfectly obedient companion, or provide a solid foundation for personal protection work. Puppy potty Training

At this initial stage, we teach the dog how to learn from and interact with the handler. This establishes a bond essential for reducing stress and increasing opportunities for fun.We use food rewards to shape and lure the dog into foundation positions. Repetition is key to the dog’s learning. Once the dog is offering the behaviours freely, a ‘cue’ word is added.All work happens in our training barn, where outside distractions are minimised. dog training collar
Introduce your new pup to its new home, family and their role. Just like when you are new to a place or group, your new pet may be bursting with curiosity, excitement, fear or joy. Now is the best time to lay out the foundation for a good and pleasant relationship with your pet. For a puppy to settle in and learn to trust and respect you and everyone at home, it is very important to establish your expectations of your puppy and be consistent with them.

Dog training classes or private sessions can also be an addition to your own training program. The dog trainer can help you improve the program and customize it to your dog's learning style. Try to be as involved as possible when it comes to your dog's training. You and your dog will be a stronger team when you are directly involved in the training process. Dog Training
Martingale collars are the humane successor to the choke chains of old. They operate in a similar fashion, with the collar tightening when your dog starts to pull. But because of the limited closure, it’s much safer and won’t actually choke your dog—just adjust to the size of their neck. For that reason, it’s also a great choice for pet owners whose dogs have a habit of slipping out of their leash.

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From a young age, dogs engage in play with one another. Dog play is made up primarily of mock fights. It is believed that this behavior, which is most common in puppies, is training for important behaviors later in life. Play between puppies is not necessarily a 50:50 symmetry of dominant and submissive roles between the individuals; dogs who engage in greater rates of dominant behaviors (e.g. chasing, forcing partners down) at later ages also initiate play at higher rates. This could imply that winning during play becomes more important as puppies mature.[11] more on this
Two dogs that are contesting possession of a highly valued resource for the first time, if one is in a state of emotional arousal, in pain; if reactivity is influenced by recent endocrine changes, or motivational states such as hunger, then the outcome of the interaction may be different than if none of these factors were present. Equally, the threshold at which aggression is shown may be influenced by a range of medical factors, or, in some cases, precipitated entirely by pathological disorders. Hence, the contextual and physiological factors present when two dogs first encounter each other may profoundly influence the long-term nature of the relationship between those dogs. The complexity of the factors involved in this type of learning means that dogs may develop different "expectations" about the likely response of another individual for each resource in a range of different situations. Puppies learn early not to challenge an older dog and this respect stays with them into adulthood. When adult animals meet for the first time, they have no expectations of the behavior of the other: they will both, therefore, be initially anxious and vigilant in this encounter (characterized by the tense body posture and sudden movements typically seen when two dogs first meet), until they start to be able to predict the responses of the other individual. The outcome of these early adult–adult interactions will be influenced by the specific factors present at the time of the initial encounters. As well as contextual and physiological factors, the previous experiences of each member of the dyad of other dogs will also influence their behavior.[34] dog training classes
To communicate clearly and consistently with your dog, you need to understand how she learns. Dogs learn through the immediate consequences of their behavior. The nature of those consequences determines how they’ll behave in the future. Dogs, like other animals (people included), work to get good things and avoid bad things in life. If a behavior results in something rewarding-like food, a good belly rub, playtime with dog buddies or a game of fetch with her pet parent-your dog will do that behavior more often. On the other hand, if a behavior results in an unpleasant consequence-like being ignored or losing things she finds rewarding-she’ll do that behavior less often. click here

Training collars typically use vibrations or static simulation (or a mild electric shock) to foster obedience, whether you’re trying to stop an aggressive behavior or teach your dog to walk with a leash. While many of these products can be expensive, this one from Mockins checks all the major boxes and comes at a low cost. Fitting dogs 15 pounds or larger, it offers 100 levels of vibration and static shock, with the delivery preceded by a warning tone. It’s also waterproof and fully rechargeable.
Emotional contagion is linked to facial mimicry in humans and primates. Facial mimicry is an automatic response that occurs in less than 1 second in which one person involuntary mimics another person's facial expressions, forming empathy. It has also been found in dogs at play, and play sessions lasted longer when there were facial mimicry signals from one dog to another.[12]
The range on this collar is nearly 800 yards. It’s an appropriate choice for training any dog from 15-120 pounds and puppy to fully-grown dog. The collar is adjustable in length and the unit’s mini-size allows you to use on your dog for extended periods of time without it bothering him. That in itself will go a long way towards training but the ease of use with the remote control will be sure to tip the scales in favor of this collar.
You can use potty training pads to give a puppy a place to go inside. They are usually scented in order attract dogs to urinate on them. This can be an aid in potty training and may seem necessary depending on your situation. But, it can also cause some problems that may prolong the training period and make it more difficult. Using pads can confuse a puppy into thinking that it is OK to go inside.
The female dog can bear another litter within 8 months of the previous one. Dogs are polygamous in contrast to wolves that are generally monogamous. Therefore, dogs have no pair bonding and the protection of a single mate, but rather have multiple mates in a year. The consequence is that wolves put a lot of energy into producing a few pups in contrast to dogs that maximize the production of pups. This higher pup production rate enables dogs to maintain or even increase their population with a lower pup survival rate than wolves, and allows dogs a greater capacity than wolves to grow their population after a population crash or when entering a new habitat. It is proposed that these differences are an alternative breeding strategy, one adapted to a life of scavenging instead of hunting.[45]
If your puppy is only a few months old, he should also be taken out every hour or so during the day, including after his meals and, ideally, when he wakes up from a nap. It’s also a good idea to take your pup outside after he’s been playing or after he has finished chewing on a toy or bone. Keep in mind that puppies tend to defecate more than adult dogs—-up to five times a day is normal.

Every dog needs to learn to walk on a leash. Besides the fact that most areas have leash laws, there will be times when keeping your dog on a leash is for his own safety. Learn how to introduce your dog or puppy to the leash, then teach him how to walk properly on the leash, even beside you on a bike. A loose leash walk teaches your dog not to pull or lunge when on ​the leash, making the experience more enjoyable for both you and your dog.
Are you ready to start training your dog? A proper dog training program is the cornerstone of good behavior in dogs. It has often been said that there are no bad dogs, only uneducated owners. Most dogs thrive with boundaries and predictable routines. Without obedience training, they simply do not know how to behave. Well-trained dogs are happier and healthier than untrained dogs, and so are their owners.
Step 1: Using either a laser pointer or touch stick, get your dog in the habit of jumping up to touch the light switch. It is best to have him jump up with his pads on the wall (instead of his claws) touching the switch with his nose. I used a laser pointer here, because I would play with it as a game, knowing that he would really go after it—even if it's on a wall.
The remote will actually let you train two dogs at once thanks to its dual functionality, all you need is an extra collar. There are 100 vibration levels, and you can choose whether to solely use vibration or sound, as well as both. The collar is also a one size fits all, so you shouldn’t have any trouble adjusting it to your dog. Completely waterproof and with rechargeable batteries, it was built to last.  how to potty train a puppy
Studies using an operant framework have indicated that humans can influence the behavior of dogs through food, petting and voice. Food and 20–30 seconds of petting maintained operant responding in dogs.[89] Some dogs will show a preference for petting once food is readily available, and dogs will remain in proximity to a person providing petting and show no satiation to that stimulus.[90] Petting alone was sufficient to maintain the operant response of military dogs to voice commands, and responses to basic obedience commands in all dogs increased when only vocal praise was provided for correct responses.[91]

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If you’d like to learn how to train your dog or if your dog has a behavior problem you’d like to resolve, don’t hesitate get help from a qualified professional trainer or behaviorist. To learn more about locating the right expert for you and your dog, please see our article, Finding Professional Help. Many Certified Pet Dog Trainers (CPDTs) and Certified Applied Animal Behaviorists (CAABs or ACAABs) offer telephone consultations, in-home private consultations and training sessions, and group classes.
Feral dogs are those dogs living in a wild state with no food and shelter intentionally provided by humans, and showing a continuous and strong avoidance of direct human contacts.[38] In the developing world pet dogs are uncommon, but feral, village or community dogs are plentiful around humans.[39] The distinction between feral, stray, and free ranging dogs is sometimes a matter of degree, and a dog may shift its status throughout its life. In some unlikely but observed cases, a feral dog that was not born wild but living with a feral group can become rehabilitated to a domestic dog with an owner. A dog can become a stray when it escapes human control, by abandonment or being born to a stray mother. A stray dog can become feral when forced out of the human environment or when co-opted or socially accepted by a nearby feral group. Feralization occurs through the development of a fear response to humans.[38]
It also helps to teach your puppy a “potty phrase” when you take him outside for a bathroom break. A potty phrase is a way to gently remind your puppy what he needs to do when he’s outside. It’s a big help during the potty training phase of puppyhood and you can continue to use for the rest of his life. Pick a phrase like “hurry up” or “go ahead” and say it softly right as your puppy eliminates. In time your dog will associate the phrase with the act of elimination, so you can say it when your puppy gets distracted and forgets what he needs to do outside.
Clicker training, a common form of positive reinforcement, is a simple and effective dog training method. Although it is still fine to train your dog without clicker training, many people find it helpful. With clicker training, you can easily and effectively teach your dog all kinds of basic and advanced commands and tricks. It's fast and easy to learn how to clicker train your dog
I have a 13 month old Pomeranian that joined our family at 11 months. He absolutely knows and understands the command “go potty” outside, but is still having many accidents inside. We take him out every hour and a half, but he still has accidents. We took him to the veterinarian to see if it were a medical issue and urine and blood analysis showed no medically issues, thankfully. We have tried treating and praising him outside, still accidents. Any ideas?
Shock. Before discarding the idea of a “shock” or “e-collar” right away, please note that these collars aren’t what they used to be. The light shock is not a painful one, just a low enough jolt to surprise and be unpleasant. This is usually the most effective but this is also the one with the most controversy so even knowing it isn’t really hurting your dog, you may opt away from this type.
Loud sound/ultra sonic. This deterrent will set off a loud sound or an ultra sonic tone that will surprise your dog when he’s caught being a bad dog. If reviews are to be believed, this is the least effective of the most commonly used deterrents but it’s also the nicest, so if you’re feeling guilty this may be your solution. Often a beep is combined with another type of deterrent and that seems to be more effective, though.

The range on this collar is nearly 800 yards. It’s an appropriate choice for training any dog from 15-120 pounds and puppy to fully-grown dog. The collar is adjustable in length and the unit’s mini-size allows you to use on your dog for extended periods of time without it bothering him. That in itself will go a long way towards training but the ease of use with the remote control will be sure to tip the scales in favor of this collar.

It’s best not to punish the puppy for making a mistake. Instead, focus on praising appropriate bathroom behavior. If you catch your puppy in the act, interrupt it by saying “No!” in a firm voice or clapping your hands loudly, then take the puppy outside to finish going to the bathroom. Never swat your puppy, yell at it, or try to rub its nose in the mess. how to potty train a puppy
Loud sound/ultra sonic. This deterrent will set off a loud sound or an ultra sonic tone that will surprise your dog when he’s caught being a bad dog. If reviews are to be believed, this is the least effective of the most commonly used deterrents but it’s also the nicest, so if you’re feeling guilty this may be your solution. Often a beep is combined with another type of deterrent and that seems to be more effective, though.

When using a crate, make sure that it is large enough to let your pup stand, turn around, and lie down comfortably. However, it should not be so large that your puppy could use a corner of the crate as an elimination spot. If your dog does start eliminating in the crate, you should stop using this method. Your puppy may have picked up this bad habit in a previous home, or he may be too young to deal with a crate.


Dogs (and wolves) mark their territories with urine and their stools.[37] The anal gland of canines give a particular signature to fecal deposits and identifies the marker as well as the place where the dung is left. Dogs are very particular about these landmarks, and engage in what is to humans a meaningless and complex ritual before defecating. Most dogs start with a careful bout of sniffing of a location, perhaps to erect an exact line or boundary between their territory and another dog's territory. This behavior may also involve a small degree of elevation, such as a rock or fallen branch, to aid scent dispersal. Scratching the ground after defecating is a visual sign pointing to the scent marking. The freshness of the scent gives visitors some idea of the current status of a piece of territory and if it is used frequently. Regions under dispute, or used by different animals at different times, may lead to marking battles with every scent marked-over by a new competitor.[6]:252–4
Step 1: Using either a laser pointer or touch stick, get your dog in the habit of jumping up to touch the light switch. It is best to have him jump up with his pads on the wall (instead of his claws) touching the switch with his nose. I used a laser pointer here, because I would play with it as a game, knowing that he would really go after it—even if it's on a wall. click here

^ De Meester, R. H.; De Bacquer, D.; Peremans, K.; Vermeire, S.; Planta, D. J.; Coopman, F.; Audenaert, K. (2008). "A preliminary study on the use of the Socially Acceptable Behavior test as a test for shyness/confidence in the temperament of dogs". Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research. 3 (4): 161–170. doi:10.1016/j.jveb.2007.10.005.


When you’re placing your dog’s training collar, you’ll want to adhere to that collar’s specific instructions. However, they typical recommend the collar be placed high on the dog’s neck, near the base of the skull. It’s the most narrow here and that means it’s less likely to lose contact with your dog’s skin. If you place it too low then your dog may work the collar up just enough to lose that contact with him, making the vibration or shock no longer effective. And don’t forget while placing the collar on, adjust the tightness so you can only fit a finger or two at most between the collar and your dog. Keeping it snug enough is fundamental to making sure it works.
When dogs are separated from humans, usually the owner, they often display behaviors which can be broken into the following four categories: exploratory behaviour, object play, destructive behaviour, and vocalization, and they are related to the canine's level of arousal.[47] These behaviours may manifest as destructiveness, fecal or urinary elimination, hypersalivation or vocalization among other things. Dogs from single-owner homes are approximately 2.5 times more likely to have separation anxiety compared to dogs from multiple-owner homes. Furthermore, sexually intact dogs are only one third as likely to have separation anxiety as neutered dogs. The sex of dogs and whether there is another pet in the home do not have an effect on separation anxiety.[48] It has been estimated that at least 14% of dogs examined at typical veterinary practices in the United States have shown signs of separation anxiety. Dogs that have been diagnosed with profound separation anxiety can be left alone for no more than minutes before they begin to panic and exhibit the behaviors associated with separation anxiety. Separation problems have been found to be linked to the dog's dependency on its owner, not because of disobedience.[47] In the absence of treatment, affected dogs are often relinquished to a humane society or shelter, abandoned, or euthanized.[49]

^ De Meester, R. H.; De Bacquer, D.; Peremans, K.; Vermeire, S.; Planta, D. J.; Coopman, F.; Audenaert, K. (2008). "A preliminary study on the use of the Socially Acceptable Behavior test as a test for shyness/confidence in the temperament of dogs". Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research. 3 (4): 161–170. doi:10.1016/j.jveb.2007.10.005. Puppy potty Training
Unlike other domestic species which were primarily selected for production-related traits, dogs were initially selected for their behaviors.[57][58] In 2016, a study found that there were only 11 fixed genes that showed variation between wolves and dogs. These gene variations were unlikely to have been the result of natural evolution, and indicate selection on both morphology and behavior during dog domestication. These genes have been shown to affect the catecholamine synthesis pathway, with the majority of the genes affecting the fight-or-flight response[58][59] (i.e. selection for tameness), and emotional processing.[58] Dogs generally show reduced fear and aggression compared to wolves.[58][60] Some of these genes have been associated with aggression in some dog breeds, indicating their importance in both the initial domestication and then later in breed formation.[58]
This is where a training collar comes in handy, but in the UK we have something a little different to the type of collar that has automatically entered your head. Electric shock collars are banned in the UK because they are cruel and can harm your dog (something you can learn more about in the FAQs a little later on). As a result, we have had to find other solutions that will still kerb bad habits without hurting your pup. These are in the form of vibrations, sound, and a citronella spray.  more on this
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