In 2004, a study reviewed 5 other studies of feral dogs published between 1975 and 1995 and concluded that their pack structure is very loose and rarely involves any cooperative behavior, either in raising young or in obtaining food.[82] Feral dogs are primarily scavengers, with studies showing that unlike their wild cousins, they are poor ungulate hunters, having little effect on wildlife populations where they are sympatric.[83]:267 However, several garbage dumps located within the feral dog's home range are important for their survival.[84] Even well-fed domestic dogs are prone to scavenge; gastro-intestinal veterinary visits increase during warmer weather as dogs are prone to eat decaying material.[85] Some dogs consume feces, which may contain nutrition.[86][87] On occasion well-fed dogs have been known to scavenge their owners' corpses.[88] Puppy potty Training

Effective dog training does not require many items, but there are a few basic supplies that will help make the process more convenient and effective. Choose a dog collar or harness that is suitable and comfortable for your dog. Then decide which dog leash is best for training. A retractable leash is not appropriate for dog training. You will also need dog training treats that your dog enjoys and are easy to eat quickly so the reward is more immediate. There are plenty of great treats available at pet stores or you can also use something you make at home, like small pieces of plain cooked chicken or turkey.


Unlike other domestic species which were primarily selected for production-related traits, dogs were initially selected for their behaviors.[57][58] In 2016, a study found that there were only 11 fixed genes that showed variation between wolves and dogs. These gene variations were unlikely to have been the result of natural evolution, and indicate selection on both morphology and behavior during dog domestication. These genes have been shown to affect the catecholamine synthesis pathway, with the majority of the genes affecting the fight-or-flight response[58][59] (i.e. selection for tameness), and emotional processing.[58] Dogs generally show reduced fear and aggression compared to wolves.[58][60] Some of these genes have been associated with aggression in some dog breeds, indicating their importance in both the initial domestication and then later in breed formation.[58]
All of the wild members of the genus Canis display complex coordinated parental behaviors. Wolf pups are cared for primarily by their mother for the first 3 months of their life when she remains in the den with them while they rely on her milk for sustenance and her presence for protection. The father brings her food. Once they leave the den and can chew, the parents and pups from previous years regurgitate food for them. Wolf pups become independent by 5 to 8 months, although they often stay with their parents for years. In contrast, dog pups are cared for by the mother and rely on her for milk and protection but she gets no help from the father nor other dogs. Once pups are weaned around 10 weeks they are independent and receive no further maternal care.[45]
Containing your pet. If you want to create a virtual fence in your garden, this is one of the best ways to do so. Every time they reach the border, you get the collar to vibrate or make a sound. This will alert the dog, and over time they will learn to stay away from the invisible line. This is an especially handy benefit if you have no fence and are not allowed to construct one. go here for more
When dogs are separated from humans, usually the owner, they often display behaviors which can be broken into the following four categories: exploratory behaviour, object play, destructive behaviour, and vocalization, and they are related to the canine's level of arousal.[47] These behaviours may manifest as destructiveness, fecal or urinary elimination, hypersalivation or vocalization among other things. Dogs from single-owner homes are approximately 2.5 times more likely to have separation anxiety compared to dogs from multiple-owner homes. Furthermore, sexually intact dogs are only one third as likely to have separation anxiety as neutered dogs. The sex of dogs and whether there is another pet in the home do not have an effect on separation anxiety.[48] It has been estimated that at least 14% of dogs examined at typical veterinary practices in the United States have shown signs of separation anxiety. Dogs that have been diagnosed with profound separation anxiety can be left alone for no more than minutes before they begin to panic and exhibit the behaviors associated with separation anxiety. Separation problems have been found to be linked to the dog's dependency on its owner, not because of disobedience.[47] In the absence of treatment, affected dogs are often relinquished to a humane society or shelter, abandoned, or euthanized.[49]
Play between dogs usually involves several behaviors that are often seen in aggressive encounters, for example, nipping, biting and growling. It is therefore important for the dogs to place these behaviors in the context of play, rather than aggression. Dogs signal their intent to play with a range of behaviors including a "play-bow", "face-paw," "open-mouthed play face" and postures inviting the other dog to chase the initiator. Similar signals are given throughout the play to maintain the context of the potentially aggressive activities.[10]
Some training methods use punishment, like leash corrections and scolding, to discourage dogs from doing everything except what you want them to do. Other methods cut right to the chase and focus on teaching dogs what you do want them to do. While both tactics can work, the latter is usually the more effective approach, and it’s also much more enjoyable for you and your dog. For example, you can easily use treats, games and praise to teach your dog to sit when people approach during walks in the neighborhood. If your dog is sitting, she won’t be dragging you toward the people, jumping up when they get close enough, mouthing on their arms and legs, and so on. That’s pretty efficient training-no pain or intimidation needed. Alternatively, you could grab your dog’s leash and jerk her to the ground every time she jumps up to greet people, and you’d most likely get the same effect in the end-no more jumping up. But consider the possible fallout: more

A training class is not there to train your dog. Its purpose is to teach you to train your dog so you will need to be committed to train your dog for short sessions (5 minutes) several times a day rather than just simply turn up for classes! This little bit of training everyday will be repaid with a lifetime of living with a well behaved dog. You will also learn to avoid problems before they begin as well as receive help to overcome any that you already have with your dog. go here for more

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