Domestic dogs appear to pay little attention to relative size, despite the large weight differences between the largest and smallest individuals; for example, size was not a predictor of the outcome of encounters between dogs meeting while being exercised by their owners nor was size correlated with neutered male dogs.[36] Therefore, many dogs do not appear to pay much attention to the actual fighting ability of their opponent, presumably allowing differences in motivation (how much the dog values the resource) and perceived motivation (what the behavior of the other dog signifies about the likelihood that it will escalate) to play a much greater role.[34]
Crate training is a great way to start your puppy off on the right paw. Dogs have a natural instinct to keep their den clean, so a properly sized crate, introduced gradually, will create a home base for your puppy and will keep him from having accidents when you can’t watch him. Use the crate when you’re unable to give your puppy your full attention during the day, as well as at nap time and bedtime. Selecting the right size crate is critical, and it should be big enough so that your puppy can comfortably stand up, turn around and lie down but not much bigger. If you opt for a crate that’s too large, your puppy will be able to potty in one corner and sleep comfortably in the other, defeating the purpose of crate training.

4)      Time the feeding. Food is really important to dogs. Even if your baby is a persnickety eater, he needs to eat to survive. Plan all meals directly after a potty run.  Since nothing says you need to feed your dog in one place for the rest of his life feed him in different areas of your home. Is he having accidents in the living room, or behind the couch?  Great—clean it up, then feed him there. Having accidents on your bed or in the upstairs guestroom?  Feed him there for a week! dog training collar
There is only one acceptable methodology for potty training a dog of any age: positive reinforcement. Traditional advice suggested swatting a dog or rubbing his face in his waste for mistakes in the house, but those techniques do nothing to make the potty training process more understandable for your dog and can actually damage your relationship with him. Keep in mind, dogs don’t view their waste the way we do – to them, pee and poo is pretty interesting! Punishing your dog for going in the house won’t help him understand what he should do instead and might make him afraid to go near you at all, inside or out. Successful potty training requires patience, kindness and remembering that your new puppy is just learning the rules.

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Two dogs that are contesting possession of a highly valued resource for the first time, if one is in a state of emotional arousal, in pain; if reactivity is influenced by recent endocrine changes, or motivational states such as hunger, then the outcome of the interaction may be different than if none of these factors were present. Equally, the threshold at which aggression is shown may be influenced by a range of medical factors, or, in some cases, precipitated entirely by pathological disorders. Hence, the contextual and physiological factors present when two dogs first encounter each other may profoundly influence the long-term nature of the relationship between those dogs. The complexity of the factors involved in this type of learning means that dogs may develop different "expectations" about the likely response of another individual for each resource in a range of different situations. Puppies learn early not to challenge an older dog and this respect stays with them into adulthood. When adult animals meet for the first time, they have no expectations of the behavior of the other: they will both, therefore, be initially anxious and vigilant in this encounter (characterized by the tense body posture and sudden movements typically seen when two dogs first meet), until they start to be able to predict the responses of the other individual. The outcome of these early adult–adult interactions will be influenced by the specific factors present at the time of the initial encounters. As well as contextual and physiological factors, the previous experiences of each member of the dyad of other dogs will also influence their behavior.[34]

Waterproof. There are varying degrees of waterproof and you may opt not to get the 100% water proof version but we highly recommend having some water resistance for a dog training collar. There are simply too many actions dogs commonly take that accidentally get water on them. They could run in the rain before you get them in or they could splash through a mud puddle. Just the act of drinking their water could slop water up onto their collar without any real surprise to a pet parent. Take some precautions to prevent ruining the collar you choose. click here


Suppose you consistently praise your puppy for their actions, while potty training. Then say your dog has an accident. Do not praise you dog immediately. Instead, take your dog outside and wait for it to go to the bathroom. When it finishes doing its business, take it inside, and keep it in a separate room while you clean up the mess. After this you should act disappointed in your dog, but only for a few minutes. Keep you and your dog motivated to potty train. go here for more

Despite claims that dogs show more human-like social cognition than wolves,[65][66][67] several recent studies have demonstrated that if wolves are properly socialized to humans and have the opportunity to interact with humans regularly, then they too can succeed on some human-guided cognitive tasks,[68][69][70][71][72] in some cases out-performing dogs at an individual level.[73] Similar to dogs, wolves can also follow more complex point types made with body parts other than the human arm and hand (e.g. elbow, knee, foot).[72] Both dogs and wolves have the cognitive capacity for prosocial behavior toward humans; however it is not guaranteed. For canids to perform well on traditional human-guided tasks (e.g. following the human point) both relevant lifetime experiences with humans - including socialization to humans during the critical period for social development - and opportunities to associate human body parts with certain outcomes (such as food being provided by human hands, a human throwing or kicking a ball, etc.) are required.[74] go here for more
The ASPCA Virtual Pet Behaviorist specializes in the resolution and management of pet behavior problems only. Please do not submit questions about medical problems here. Only licensed veterinarians can diagnose medical conditions. If you think that your pet is sick, injured or experiencing any kind of physical distress, please contact his veterinarian immediately. A delay in seeking proper veterinary care may worsen your pet's condition and put his life at risk. If you are concerned about the cost of veterinary care, please read our resources on finding financial help.© 2009-2014 ASPCA. All Rights Reserved.
Take baby steps Dogs, just like people, learn best when new tasks are broken down into small steps. For example, you can’t go out and line dance unless you learn all of the individual steps first! When teaching your dog a new skill, begin with an easy first step and increase difficulty gradually. If you’re training your dog to stay, start by asking her to stay for just 3 seconds. After some practice, try increasing the duration of her stay to 8 seconds. When your dog has mastered an 8-second stay, make things a little harder by increasing the time to 15 seconds. Over the next week or two, continue to gradually increase the duration of the stay from 15 seconds to 30 seconds to a minute to a few minutes, etc. By training systematically and increasing difficulty slowly, you’ll help your dog learn faster in the long run. how to potty train a puppy
At this initial stage, we teach the dog how to learn from and interact with the handler. This establishes a bond essential for reducing stress and increasing opportunities for fun.We use food rewards to shape and lure the dog into foundation positions. Repetition is key to the dog’s learning. Once the dog is offering the behaviours freely, a ‘cue’ word is added.All work happens in our training barn, where outside distractions are minimised. dog training collar
Dog aggression is exhibited by growling, snarling, showing teeth, lunging, and biting. It is important to know that any dog has the potential to show aggression, regardless of breed or history. However, dogs with violent or abusive histories and those bred from dogs with aggressive tendencies are much more likely to exhibit aggressive behavior towards people or other dogs.
Training collars typically use vibrations or static simulation (or a mild electric shock) to foster obedience, whether you’re trying to stop an aggressive behavior or teach your dog to walk with a leash. While many of these products can be expensive, this one from Mockins checks all the major boxes and comes at a low cost. Fitting dogs 15 pounds or larger, it offers 100 levels of vibration and static shock, with the delivery preceded by a warning tone. It’s also waterproof and fully rechargeable. Dog Training

This article was co-authored by David Levin. David Levin is the Owner of Citizen Hound, a professional dog walking business based in the San Francisco Bay Area. With over 9 years of professional dog walking and training experience, David's business has been voted the "Best Dog Walker SF" by Beast of the Bay for 2019, 2018, and 2017. Citizen Hound has also been ranked #1 Dog Walker by the SF Examiner and A-List in 2017, 2016, 2015. Citizen Hound prides themselves on their customer service, care, skill, and reputation. dog training tips
Effective dog training does not require many items, but there are a few basic supplies that will help make the process more convenient and effective. Choose a dog collar or harness that is suitable and comfortable for your dog. Then decide which dog leash is best for training. A retractable leash is not appropriate for dog training. You will also need dog training treats that your dog enjoys and are easy to eat quickly so the reward is more immediate. There are plenty of great treats available at pet stores or you can also use something you make at home, like small pieces of plain cooked chicken or turkey.
Puppies may nip at you as they learn how to communicate with their pet parents. This usually happens while playing, as young dogs often communicate with their mouths when they interact. It may also happen during training, or for simply no reason you can identify. If your young one is nipping regularly, though, it's important to stop it before it develops into a more problematic dog behavior down the line.
The PetSafe Gentle Lead Head Collar is available in sizes suitable for dogs from five pounds to over 130 and comes in eight different colors. The package also includes an explainer DVD that demonstrates the appropriate way to use the collar. Customers rave that it really does help dogs that won’t quit pulling on the leash—and it won’t break the budget, either.
If you ask around, you’ll get all kinds of advice about training your dog. Some people will tell you that the key is to use a “firm hand”-to make sure your dog doesn’t think she can get away with naughty behavior. Some people argue that you should only use rewards in dog training and avoid punishing your dog in any way. Some people insist that all you have to do is “be the alpha dog,” assert your status as the dominant leader of your “pack.” It’s easy to get overwhelmed by the glut of differing opinions out there.
Play between dogs usually involves several behaviors that are often seen in aggressive encounters, for example, nipping, biting and growling. It is therefore important for the dogs to place these behaviors in the context of play, rather than aggression. Dogs signal their intent to play with a range of behaviors including a "play-bow", "face-paw," "open-mouthed play face" and postures inviting the other dog to chase the initiator. Similar signals are given throughout the play to maintain the context of the potentially aggressive activities.[10]

A new puppy or even a fully grown dog can bring a lot of joy to your household. The most critical part of integrating your new pup into your home is potty training. Use this seven-day guide to get you started with potty training your puppy. As you begin, keep in mind that fully housebreaking your puppy can take four to six months of consistency and patience. In seven short days, however, you can lay the groundwork and see some significant results.
One test to ascertain in which group the dominant dog was used the following criteria: When a stranger comes to the house, which dog starts to bark first or if they start to bark together, which dog barks more or longer? Which dog licks more often the other dog's mouth? If the dogs get food at the same time and at the same spot, which dog starts to eat first or eats the other dog's food? If the dogs start to fight, which dog usually wins?[35]
Approach accidents in the right way. When this happens, do not punish your pup. Instead, when you catch him eliminating in the house, clap loudly to let him know he’s done something inappropriate. Then, immediately take him outside by calling his name or leading him gently by the collar. When he finishes eliminating outside, respond by giving him praise and/or a small treat to reinforce the behavior. more
The range on this collar is nearly 800 yards. It’s an appropriate choice for training any dog from 15-120 pounds and puppy to fully-grown dog. The collar is adjustable in length and the unit’s mini-size allows you to use on your dog for extended periods of time without it bothering him. That in itself will go a long way towards training but the ease of use with the remote control will be sure to tip the scales in favor of this collar. 

Distractions are added to the dogs training to start “proving”their behaviours.Still working within our training barn, we introduce controlled distractions. Body language is reduced as we expect the dog to respond increasinglyonlyto verbal commands.Recalls and stays are introduced and built upon. We now expect more from the dog as his ability grows.
This is where a training collar comes in handy, but in the UK we have something a little different to the type of collar that has automatically entered your head. Electric shock collars are banned in the UK because they are cruel and can harm your dog (something you can learn more about in the FAQs a little later on). As a result, we have had to find other solutions that will still kerb bad habits without hurting your pup. These are in the form of vibrations, sound, and a citronella spray. 
Yes, a training collar is completely safe for your dog. This is because they only use sound, vibration, or citronella spray. Each of these is completely harmless and designed to give your dog a surprise as opposed to an electric shock. They are effective for training, and they will not cause increased aggression because your dog is not feeling any pain, they are just a little startled by the sudden sound, sensation, or smell. 
One of the biggest predictors of a speedy potty training process is owner diligence. If you’re on top of your puppy’s schedule and you stick to a strict prevention and supervision regiment, you should be well on your way to potty training success within a few months. You can consider your puppy almost fully housetrained when you’ve gone an entire month without a single accident, but keep in mind that potty training is an inexact science. It’s best to have several dry months before you can really trust that your puppy understands the rules. how to potty train a puppy
Dog puppies require as little as 90 minutes of contact with humans during their critical period of socialization to form a social attachment. This will not create a highly social pet but a dog that will solicit human attention.[62] Wolves require 24 hours contact a day starting before 3 weeks of age. To create a socialized wolf the pups are removed from the den at 10 days of age, kept in constant human contact until they are 4 weeks old when they begin to bite their sleeping human companions, then spend only their waking hours in the presence of humans. This socialization process continues until age 4 months, when the pups can join other captive wolves but will require daily human contact to remain socialized. Despite this intensive socialization process, a well-socialized wolf will behave differently to a well-socialized dog and will display species-typical hunting and reproductive behaviors, only closer to humans than a wild wolf. These wolves do not generalize their socialization to all humans in the same manner as a socialized dog and they remain more fearful of novelty compared to socialized dogs.[63]
From a young age, dogs engage in play with one another. Dog play is made up primarily of mock fights. It is believed that this behavior, which is most common in puppies, is training for important behaviors later in life. Play between puppies is not necessarily a 50:50 symmetry of dominant and submissive roles between the individuals; dogs who engage in greater rates of dominant behaviors (e.g. chasing, forcing partners down) at later ages also initiate play at higher rates. This could imply that winning during play becomes more important as puppies mature.[11]
Sometimes, our dogs just don’t seem to respond to us when we try to train them. They may be stubborn, strong-willed, or just a little mischievous. Of course, there are some habits that need to be broken for their safety as well as our own - or just because the neighbours are starting to complain about your dog’s barking and you don’t want to get fined. 

Research has shown that there are individual differences in the interactions between dogs and their human that have significant effects on dog behavior. In 1997, a study showed that the type of relationship between dog and master, characterized as either companionship or working relationship, significantly affected the dog's performance on a cognitive problem-solving task. They speculate that companion dogs have a more dependent relationship with their owners, and look to them to solve problems. In contrast, working dogs are more independent.[94]
This article was co-authored by David Levin. David Levin is the Owner of Citizen Hound, a professional dog walking business based in the San Francisco Bay Area. With over 9 years of professional dog walking and training experience, David's business has been voted the "Best Dog Walker SF" by Beast of the Bay for 2019, 2018, and 2017. Citizen Hound has also been ranked #1 Dog Walker by the SF Examiner and A-List in 2017, 2016, 2015. Citizen Hound prides themselves on their customer service, care, skill, and reputation.
Take baby steps Dogs, just like people, learn best when new tasks are broken down into small steps. For example, you can’t go out and line dance unless you learn all of the individual steps first! When teaching your dog a new skill, begin with an easy first step and increase difficulty gradually. If you’re training your dog to stay, start by asking her to stay for just 3 seconds. After some practice, try increasing the duration of her stay to 8 seconds. When your dog has mastered an 8-second stay, make things a little harder by increasing the time to 15 seconds. Over the next week or two, continue to gradually increase the duration of the stay from 15 seconds to 30 seconds to a minute to a few minutes, etc. By training systematically and increasing difficulty slowly, you’ll help your dog learn faster in the long run.
The process is the exactly same for older dogs as it is for puppies; prevent accidents from happening by using baby gates and a crate if possible, create a predictable schedule, learn to recognize your dog’s potty signals, accompany your dog outside and immediately reward for all outdoor elimination, properly clean any accidents and supervise your dog until you’re sure that he understands the rules. 

Unfortunately, some breeds are labeled "dangerous" and banned in certain areas. However, it's not usually about the breed so much as it's about history. A dog's environment has a major impact on behavior. Also, regardless of breed, a dog may inherit some aggressive traits. Fortunately, most experts agree that breed-specific legislation is not the answer. Puppy potty Training
Dog puppies require as little as 90 minutes of contact with humans during their critical period of socialization to form a social attachment. This will not create a highly social pet but a dog that will solicit human attention.[62] Wolves require 24 hours contact a day starting before 3 weeks of age. To create a socialized wolf the pups are removed from the den at 10 days of age, kept in constant human contact until they are 4 weeks old when they begin to bite their sleeping human companions, then spend only their waking hours in the presence of humans. This socialization process continues until age 4 months, when the pups can join other captive wolves but will require daily human contact to remain socialized. Despite this intensive socialization process, a well-socialized wolf will behave differently to a well-socialized dog and will display species-typical hunting and reproductive behaviors, only closer to humans than a wild wolf. These wolves do not generalize their socialization to all humans in the same manner as a socialized dog and they remain more fearful of novelty compared to socialized dogs.[63] more
Playing with humans can affect the cortisol levels of dogs. In one study, the cortisol responses of police dogs and border guard dogs was assessed after playing with their handlers. The cortisol concentrations of the police dogs increased, whereas the border guard dogs' hormone levels decreased. The researchers noted that during the play sessions, police officers were disciplining their dogs, whereas the border guards were truly playing with them, i.e. this included bonding and affectionate behaviors. They commented that several studies have shown that behaviors associated with control, authority or aggression increase cortisol, whereas play and affiliation behavior decrease cortisol levels.[15] Puppy Training
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