Dominance is a descriptive term for the relationship between pairs of individuals. Among ethologists, dominance has been defined as "an attribute of the pattern of repeated, antagonistic interactions between two individuals, characterized by a consistent outcome in favor of the same dyad member and a default yielding response of its opponent rather than escalation. The status of the consistent winner is dominant and that of the loser subordinate."[33] Another definition is that a dominant animal has "priority of access to resources".[33] Dominance is a relative attribute, not absolute; there is no reason to assume that a high-ranking individual in one group would also become high ranking if moved to another. Nor is there any good evidence that "dominance" is a lifelong character trait. Competitive behavior characterized by confident (e.g. growl, inhibited bite, stand over, stare at, chase, bark at) and submissive (e.g. crouch, avoid, displacement lick/yawn, run away) patterns exchanged.[34] Puppy Training
When you’re placing your dog’s training collar, you’ll want to adhere to that collar’s specific instructions. However, they typical recommend the collar be placed high on the dog’s neck, near the base of the skull. It’s the most narrow here and that means it’s less likely to lose contact with your dog’s skin. If you place it too low then your dog may work the collar up just enough to lose that contact with him, making the vibration or shock no longer effective. And don’t forget while placing the collar on, adjust the tightness so you can only fit a finger or two at most between the collar and your dog. Keeping it snug enough is fundamental to making sure it works.
This training collar actually uses one of the most popular and effective forms of correction; citronella spray. What this means is that when the dog barks, the microphone in the box on the collar will be activated; releasing a burst of harmless citronella into the room. Dogs are not too fond of this odour, and they will associate barking with the smell. 
With your dog sitting at your side, set off and give the command “heel” (so that your dog is aware you are about to move). If the dog gets ahead, stop and encourage it back to your side with a titbit. Repeat. To begin with, stop every three to four paces to praise your dog and give a titbit. Do not use your voice unless your dog is at your side. You can also practise this off-lead in a secure area – this makes you work really hard at keeping your dog with you, rather than relying on the lead. click here
Space used by feral dogs is not dissimilar from most other canids in that they use defined traditional areas (home ranges) that tend to be defended against intruders, and have core areas where most of their activities are undertaken. Urban domestic dogs have a home range of 2-61 hectares in contrast to a feral dogs home range of 58 square kilometers. Wolf home ranges vary from 78 square kilometers where prey is deer to 2.5 square kilometers at higher latitudes where prey is moose and caribou. Wolves will defend their territory based on prey abundance and pack density, but feral dogs will defend their home ranges all year. Where wolf ranges and feral dog ranges overlap, the feral dogs will site their core areas closer to human settlement.[38] Dog Training
Unfortunately, some breeds are labeled "dangerous" and banned in certain areas. However, it's not usually about the breed so much as it's about history. A dog's environment has a major impact on behavior. Also, regardless of breed, a dog may inherit some aggressive traits. Fortunately, most experts agree that breed-specific legislation is not the answer.
When dogs are separated from humans, usually the owner, they often display behaviors which can be broken into the following four categories: exploratory behaviour, object play, destructive behaviour, and vocalization, and they are related to the canine's level of arousal.[47] These behaviours may manifest as destructiveness, fecal or urinary elimination, hypersalivation or vocalization among other things. Dogs from single-owner homes are approximately 2.5 times more likely to have separation anxiety compared to dogs from multiple-owner homes. Furthermore, sexually intact dogs are only one third as likely to have separation anxiety as neutered dogs. The sex of dogs and whether there is another pet in the home do not have an effect on separation anxiety.[48] It has been estimated that at least 14% of dogs examined at typical veterinary practices in the United States have shown signs of separation anxiety. Dogs that have been diagnosed with profound separation anxiety can be left alone for no more than minutes before they begin to panic and exhibit the behaviors associated with separation anxiety. Separation problems have been found to be linked to the dog's dependency on its owner, not because of disobedience.[47] In the absence of treatment, affected dogs are often relinquished to a humane society or shelter, abandoned, or euthanized.[49]
As mentioned before, your puppy should be taken outside regularly for bathroom breaks, but if you need to use a crate for more than two hours at a time, make sure that your dog has consistent access to fresh water. Your dog may eventually be able to stay in the crate and “hold it” for the length of an entire workday, but you or someone else should be around during the day to give him regular breaks from the crate for the first eight months to a year.
You should always accompany your puppy outside for potty breaks. You’re there not only to ensure that he actually goes, you’re also there to reward your puppy with a treat for going in the proper spot. Wait until your puppy finishes eliminating and immediately give him a tasty reward for a job well done. If you wait until you get back in the house, your puppy won’t make the connection between his elimination and the reward. go here for more

Seeking professional help doesn't mean ditching your DIY training program. You can find a professional dog trainer who offers private training sessions, and some trainers even offer online sessions. Many dog owners prefer to join a local dog obedience class so they will be under the supervision of a dog training instructor without the higher cost of private sessions. Plus, classes challenge your dog to learn around the distractions of other dogs.
Effective dog training does not require many items, but there are a few basic supplies that will help make the process more convenient and effective. Choose a dog collar or harness that is suitable and comfortable for your dog. Then decide which dog leash is best for training. A retractable leash is not appropriate for dog training. You will also need dog training treats that your dog enjoys and are easy to eat quickly so the reward is more immediate. There are plenty of great treats available at pet stores or you can also use something you make at home, like small pieces of plain cooked chicken or turkey.
Dogs reach sexual maturity and can reproduce during their first year in contrast to a wolf at two years. The female dog can bear another litter within 8 months of the last one. The canid genus is influenced by the photoperiod and generally reproduces in the springtime.[38] Domestic dogs are not reliant on seasonality for reproduction in contrast to the wolf, coyote, Australian dingo and African basenji that may have only one, seasonal, estrus each year.[44] Feral dogs are influenced by the photoperiod with around half of the breeding females mating in the springtime, which is thought to indicate an ancestral reproductive trait not overcome by domestication,[38] as can be inferred from wolves[75] and Cape hunting dogs.[76]

Emotional contagion is linked to facial mimicry in humans and primates. Facial mimicry is an automatic response that occurs in less than 1 second in which one person involuntary mimics another person's facial expressions, forming empathy. It has also been found in dogs at play, and play sessions lasted longer when there were facial mimicry signals from one dog to another.[12]

Containing your pet. If you want to create a virtual fence in your garden, this is one of the best ways to do so. Every time they reach the border, you get the collar to vibrate or make a sound. This will alert the dog, and over time they will learn to stay away from the invisible line. This is an especially handy benefit if you have no fence and are not allowed to construct one.


Separation anxiety is one of the most commonly discussed dog behavior problems. Manifestations include vocalization, chewing, inappropriate urination and defecation, and other forms of destruction that occur when a dog is separated from his owner. Not all of these actions are the result of separation anxiety. Signs of true separation anxiety include:
When using a crate, make sure that it is large enough to let your pup stand, turn around, and lie down comfortably. However, it should not be so large that your puppy could use a corner of the crate as an elimination spot. If your dog does start eliminating in the crate, you should stop using this method. Your puppy may have picked up this bad habit in a previous home, or he may be too young to deal with a crate.

A change in the smell of your dog's breath may also be a cause for concern with respect to his gastrointestinal tract, liver, or kidneys. If your dog's breath smells of urine, for instance, he could have a kidney problem. Sweet-smelling breath is a sign to vets that your dog may have diabetes (especially if he's drinking more water and urinating more often). His overall dog mood may appear happy, but if his breath has changed, pay attention - let your veterinarian know.
Your pup's actions tell you a lot about his mood. And although you may not be fluent in the canine tongue–short of what it means when it salivates–you do need to learn how to interpret dog behavior. Have you ever witnessed your dog licking certain textures or circling the same spot in front of you? There are many reasons a specific dog state of mind or health concern may cause him to do these things. Once you pay attention to his behavior, you'll be able to help him.
Dogs eat feces for many reasons; it can be a normal (while distasteful to us) dog behavior. Young dogs may watch their mother clean them (who ingests feces as a result), and mimic her. Fear may even cause your dog to eat feces if he's afraid of the repercussions. Then again, your dog may just be curious. He may smell certain scents in the feces and wonder what it tastes like.
Technologically improved in 2019, the Sparklypets Humane Dog Bark Collar has an advanced sensitivity chip with seven levels to customize to any dog breed or size. The sensitivity chip monitors the dog’s vocal chords, and sends pulsating vibrations as a warning. The dog notices these vibrations and associates it with barking sounds to safely correct the behavior.
Suppose you consistently praise your puppy for their actions, while potty training. Then say your dog has an accident. Do not praise you dog immediately. Instead, take your dog outside and wait for it to go to the bathroom. When it finishes doing its business, take it inside, and keep it in a separate room while you clean up the mess. After this you should act disappointed in your dog, but only for a few minutes. Keep you and your dog motivated to potty train.
The range on this collar is nearly 800 yards. It’s an appropriate choice for training any dog from 15-120 pounds and puppy to fully-grown dog. The collar is adjustable in length and the unit’s mini-size allows you to use on your dog for extended periods of time without it bothering him. That in itself will go a long way towards training but the ease of use with the remote control will be sure to tip the scales in favor of this collar.
Consideration: Many little dogs generally don’t like to rock the boat. This is especially true if they’ve been punished for accidents. A lot of people think punishing works because their dog or pup looks guilty. Well, that guilty look is just fear. And it doesn’t work; why else would you be reading this article? Often a little dog will make it easy on everyone and potty in a remote corner of the house. Think back: was there a time your puppy nipped, barked, or jumped at you repeatedly? Don’t ignore it—that’s the doggy equivalent of a toddler’s crotch grasping or body squirm. Our dog will nip, jump, and bark at you to tell you he’s gotta go! how to potty train a puppy
Yes – with a warning. Most bark collars respond to a bark with a negative stimulus: citronella spray, ultrasonic sound, or a brief shock. The problem, and the warning, is for homes with multiple dogs or even dogs nearby. For this reason, many bark collars come with adjustable levels of sensitivity, making it harder to set off or easier, depending on your specific situation. You don’t want your dog getting negative reinforcement when another dog is misbehaving; of course because it’s cruel but also because it will confuse him and make the collar worthless. So use these collars carefully and never when he’s in the company of other untrained dogs. dog training classes
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